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## 0.File Permission Modes

rwx: rwx: rwx
u: g: o

#### rwx

Files have three kinds of permissions: read (r), write (w), execute (x). These are generally represented as in rwx.

u:user/owner
g:group
0:others

## 1.chmod

### This kind of syntax can be difficult to type and remember

so one often uses a shorthand which lets you set all the permissions in one step.

4 if read permission is desired.
2 if write permission is desired.
1 if execute permission is desired.

When you apply this to the chmod command you have to give three digits for each degree of freedom, such as in

## 2.chown

ls -a看檔案完整的訊息，發現檔案擁有者已經改變成root。